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Muktinath ---- Trek the Sacred Place

(For more pictures click Muktinath...)

Muktinath is a sacred place both for Hindus and Buddhists located in Muktinath Valley at an altitude of 3,710 meters at the foot of the Thorong La mountain pass (part of the Himalayas), Mustang district, Nepal. The site is close to the village Ranipauwa, which sometimes mistakenly is called Muktinath as well.

The Hindus call the sacred place Mukti Kshetra, which literally means the "place of salvation". It is also one of the 51 Sakthi peetams. The Buddhists call it Chumig Gyatsa, which in Tibetan means 'Hundred Waters'. For Tibetan Buddhists Muktinath-Chumig Gyatsa is a very important place of Dakinis, goddesses known as Sky Dancers and one of the 24 Tantric places. They understand the murti to be a manifestation of Avalokitesvara.

The central temple

The central shrine of Muktinath-Chumig Gyatsa is considered one of the eight most sacred shrines for Hindu Vaishnavas known as Svayam Vyakta Ksetras, the other seven being Srirangam, Srimushnam, Tirupati, Naimisharanya, Totadri, Pushkar and Badrinath. The temple is very small. Muktinath is one of the most ancient Hindu temples of God Vishnu. The murti is of gold and is tall enough to compare with a man. The prakaram has 108 bull faces through which water is poured. It is of freezing temperature. There is an old Buddhist monk present in the temple. The worship is conducted by Buddhist nuns.


The Tibetan Buddhist tradition states that for this reason Guru Rinpoche, also known as Padmasambhava, the founder of Tibetan Buddhism, had meditated at Muktinath on his way to Tibet.

The waterway downstream from Muktinath along Kali Gandaki is the source of all Silas or Shaligrams that are required to establish a temple of Vishnu anywhere in the world. It is considered to be one of the holiest places of pilgrimage of Hindus, Buddhists, and Vaishnavas. It has 108 water springs and this number carries great significance in Eastern philosophy. In Hindu astrology, there are 12 zodiac or Rashi and 9 planets or Graha, giving a total of 108 combination. Also there are 27 Lunar mansions or Nakshatras which are divided in 4 quarters or Padas each giving a combination of 108 Padas in total.

Sri Murthy Mahatmyam

This is the only place on earth where you can find all five elements from which everything is made, according to the Buddhist and Hindu tradition: fire, water, sky, earth and air at the same place together in their own and distinct form. This place is near Jwala Devi temple.

The entire river bed has Shaligram stones which are used to worship Lord Vishnu.

According to Sri Vaishnava philosophy it is considered to be one of the Divya desam (108 in total) or holy places of worship of Lord Vishnu praised by Alwars in a compilation called the Nalayira Divya Prabandha.

It is said that one has to be gifted to get the darshan of Lord Sri Murthi and Goddess Sri Devi Thayaar.


A local nun manages the pujas in the temple. Pilgrims who go there should offer prasad to the deity.

Darshan, sevas and festivals

The most suitable time to visit Muktinath is from March to June, as the weather conditions would not be safe enough to travel in other months. The journey passes through many archeological sites and temples.


Thirumangai Alvar could not reach Muktinath, but had sung from nearest place in praise of Lord Sri Murthy. Periyalvar had sung in praise of Sri Murthi as "Salagramamudaiya Nambi".

Travel access

It is quite difficult to travel because of tough weather conditions. One can fly from Kathmandu to Pokhara and then from Pokhara to Jomsom Airport. From there, one can either trek all the way or take a jeep to Muktinath. Some tourists are also known to charter a helicopter all the way to Muktinath which takes around forty five minutes to reach. The helicopter can be hired only when the weather permits.

Arriving by helicopter for a longer period of stay is not recommended because of the risk of acute mountain sickness. Accommodation is available in Muktinath, Kagbeni or Jomsom.

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Indigenous Peoples Trail: Ramechhap

(For more pictures click Ramechhap...)

The ‘Indigenous Peoples Trail' is in Ramechhap District of Nepal.The first of its kind in Nepal, the ‘Indigenous Peoples Trail’ offers unique, living, exposure to one of the most culturally diverse areas of Nepal. The ‘Indigenous Peoples Trail’ offers scenic trekking at relatively low elevations, below 3000M. Bound by Thulo Sailung peak in the North, the golden Sun Koshi flowing along the South and the Tama Koshi in the East, the ‘Indigenous Peoples Trail’ presents an incomparable and natural blend of cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity coupled with breathtaking Himalayan panoramas, stretching from Dhauligiri and Annapurna in the West to Numburchuili and Kanchenjunga in the East.

57.9% of the total populations in Ramechhap belong to indigenous communities. Out of the total 55 VDCs, indigenous populations are in majority in 34 VDCs. In all, there are 21 indigenous groups in Ramechhap. Ramechhap district falls within the territory what is historically known as homeland of indigenous Tamang nation, they form the largest size. Tamang Peoples constitute about 21% of the total population. In Ramechhap District, host families include Newar, Tamang, Thami, Sherpa and Yolmo farming families who live in the rural countryside as well as fishing families who live in riverine villages along the Sun Koshi and Tama Koshi Rivers. 

Against a magnificent Himalayan backdrop visitors gain invaluable insight to the culture and lifestyle of several local Indigenous Peoples including Tamang, Newars, Sherpa, Thamis, and Majhis. The two predominant religions, Hinduism and Buddhism, are ever present with the variety of gods and goddess, temples, stupas and monasteries. The ‘Indigenous Peoples Trail’ is possible throughout the year, although the best season is October to December and March to April when the Rhododendrons are in bloom.

Get In
The Starting Point is Dhunge via Mude, a 3 hr drive from Dhulikhel or 4.5 hrs from Kathmandu. Get off the bus in Dhunghe and begin the short climb towards Thulo Sailung. Follow the trail down to the Sherpa village of Khola Kharka where you will spend the night in the newly established Khola Kharka Community Centre.

  • Thulo Sailung
Rise early to reach the summit of Thulo Sailung as the sun rises over the Eastern Himalaya. At 3300m Thulo Sailung offers magnificent views over Kalinchowk to the Annapurna, Langtang, Ganesh Himal, Rowaling, Everest and Kanchenjunga ranges, to the South the Mahabharata hills roll over the Sun Koshi River and down to the Terai below. Thulo Sailung is regarded by the Tamangs as the abode of the territorial deity, Sailung Phoi Sibda Karpo, Sailung’s ‘White Male Lord of the Earth’. The chorten atop the hill of Sailung is the seat of this divine protector and the Tamang Community are the ‘custodians of the land’. The souls of the ancestors together with the ‘Lord of the Earth’ guarantee the well-being of the people and the fertility of the soil. The four groups of stone chorten on the summit are related to the Tamang Communities in the surrounding area – the groups on the highest point facing south over Ramechhap, today in ruins, are the largest. At the chortens Buddhist Priests perform ‘mandala offerings’ for the rebirth of the souls of the deceased. The lingos surrounding the Chorten were erected during Tamang death rituals and are left there to succumb to the forces of nature. The main rituals held here are Buddhist offerings to the souls of the deceased. During the festival of Saun Purnima, held on the full moon of July/August during which Tamang pilgrims crowd around the ruined Chortens at the highest point of Thulo Sailung. Nowadays, no blood sacrifices are permitted on Thulo Sailung. The shamans have surrendered to Buddhist Dominance and refrain from offering blood to the fierce female deities

Other sites of interest around Thulo Sailung include three rocks - tiger, snake and cow representing the Hindu, Buddhist and Shamanic simultaneous rivalry and co-existence. The King of the Tigers lived on Thulo Sailung. One day he was pursuing a cow grazing on the meadows of Thulo Sailung. Suddenly a snake appeared from the soil and came between the tiger and the cow. The three turned to stone and the cow was saved from the tiger. Two rocks below Thulo Sailung bear the footprint of Padmasambhava and his sword. 

Located below the summit of Thulo Sailung is Gaurighat cave, it is believed that on full moon nights ‘milk’ is said to ooze from the stalagtites inside the cave. The cave is believed to be a source of fertility and health. Pilgrims pray there for sons, relief from illness and for personal success and wealth. The cave is also considered the entrance to the netherworld, the realm of the nagas serpent deity. Legend has it “when a yogi meditates inside the cave for five years, a door leading to the interior of the mountain appears”. 

A second cave locally known as ‘Buddha’s Gate’ or the ‘Door of Dharma’ has an exit hole that almost too small for human passage. Only the most devout Buddhists who have not committed any sins can pass. Squeeze through in the hope of ridding yourself of sin and emerge pure! 

In the third small cave, Godavari cave, it is believed that every twelve years at the full moon of August/September white water is said to flow in which Hindu’s take a sacred bath to ritually purify the body. These caves are also associated with the Hindu God Mahadev, the popular form of Shiva, together with his female consort Seti Devi, the ‘White Goddess’ Parvati. A shepherd discovered his cow was giving milk a large phallic rock inside the cave. According to legend the rock was Mahadev himself. 

Enjoy lunch in Khola Kharka and continue along the trail, passing through rhododendrons blossoming along the way amidst the chirping of birds and wild insects a gentle downhill stroll brings you to the Monastery in Raj Veer Built by the Bhutanese Drukpa Kagyu School in 1972. The craftsmen responsible for the paintings and frescoes came from Bhutan. The patron Lama Kalsang has donated comfortable accommodation quarters where you will spend the night. Rise early to the sound of chanting Monks and receive a blessing before continuing on you journey. 

*Raj Veer continuing downhill from Raj Veer Monastery the trail leaves behind the thick alpine forests and opens up to the green terraced fields. Along the route you pass through the Sherpa village of Dadhuwa-Dara and a Tamang village, each with their own Buddhist gompas. Prayer flags, chorthens and mani stones are scattered along the route. 

*Surke-Thinghare The trail continues to descend where the spectacular 40 foot 'Thinghare' water fall crashes onto the rocks below. A short climb brings you to the beautifully terraced settlement of Surke where you will spend the night. Spend a day in the village, climb to the viewpoint of Gaurigaun or visit the endangered Thami Community. The local Thami band are on hand to entertain and visitors can sample the local Raksi! 

*Doramba As you leave Surke you pass through Thami Settlements before crossing over into the Doramba valley where the trail traverses along the forest covered hillside around to the terraced fields of Doramba. The trail leisurely follows the contours of the valley leading to the bustling Doramba Bazaar, where you can purchase cold drinks, snacks and music cassettes of local Tamang songstress, ShaShi Moktan

*Khandadevi After a pleasant walk out of the Doramba valley, the route ascends to the sacred Hindu shrine atop Agleshwari Danda where you will be rewarded with stunning views of the Himalaya and the rolling Mahabhata hills below. Descend through the local slate mine, through pine forests to emerging at Galpa Bazaar. Perched on a pass between two valleys Galpa Bazaar is a bustling centre where you can purchase cold drinks and snacks, an ideal place to break for lunch. 

Perched on top of a 1977m peak, Khandadevi is situated around a captivating Hindu Temple complex encircled by ancient stone walls. The temple, dedicated to Goddess Khada Devi, was discovered in 1458 AD by a shepherd who discovered milk oozing from a sacred stone, an emanation of the Goddess Khandadevi. The site served also as a fortress during the Anglo-Nepal war. The setting is dominated by high hills of lush green Maharabharat Range with snowy peaks of Numburchuili and Gaurishankar on the northern horizon and southern views over the flat terai below. Daily animal sacrifices, Panchabale, are still carried out today. 

*Sunapati Leaving Khandadevi the trail follows a long ridge with views down into the Terai on one side and up into the snow capped Himalayan peaks on the other. The trail traverses up and down through thick alpine forests before crossing into another valley. Amidst the forest you encounter an enormous rock adorned with a Shiva temple before emerging at Dhonghme, an ancient Yolmo settlement, inhabited by many Lama's.
In the evening, make the gradual climb to the summit of Sunapati, well-know for its spectacular sunrises and sunsets. Here amongst the Buddhist Chortens and Hindu shrines you can enjoy sunset over the Himalaya before returning to the Gumba to spend the night. 

*Lubughat After breakfast the next morning you get to enjoy an equally stunning sunrise before the final descent to the village of Lubughat on the renowned Sun Koshi River. Here you will meet the Majhi peoples, renowned for their fishing expertise. Roaming through the rivers, men, women and children repeatedly hurl nets into nearby water in hopes of trapping passing fish. 

The ‘Indigenous Peoples Trail' allows you to stay overnight in private homes in traditional villages far from commercialized tourist trails. Rooms in local houses are renovated and fitted with bathrooms and a few tourist-style comforts, host families are trained to prepare meals hygienically. 

When staying with a Nepali family guests live the life as the local people do, and are treated like part of the family. The homes reflect the traditional and simple atmosphere of the people. Apart from the pleasure of being amidst peaceful and serene environment, tourists can also enjoy the traditional folk dances and music presented by the local men and women in their colorful traditional dresses.
The focus for the guests is on experiencing and learning from an authentic and enriched culture. Visitors are often involved in local activities that range from cooking classes through to attending a traditional wedding, watching a local cultural dance

The home-stays allows visitors to discover the real Nepal and to enjoy the untouched country-side. Unlike highly commercialized routes trekkers walk through uninhabited areas and meet few fellow travelers.
This is a great trek if you wish to avoid extreme high altitudes. As the trek remains at relatively low altitudes there is little chance of altitude sickness.

 Get Out
The final stretch of the trail crosses over the Sun Koshi and shortly ends at Nepalthok where your bus or jeep will be waiting. A pleasant 2 hour drive on hard-top road back brings you back to Kathmandu.

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Lets know the Newars and Newari culture !!!

(For more pictures click Newars...)

The Newars are regarded as the original inhabitants of the Kathmandu Valley, but their origins are shrouded in mystery. They speak a Tibeto-Burmese language, which indicates they originated in the east, but their physical features range from distinctively Mongoloid, again suggesting to east, to Indo-Aryan, which of course points to India. In balance, it seems most like that the Kathmandu valley has long been a cultural and racial melting pot, with people coming from both east and west. This fusion has resulted in the unique Newar culture that is responsible for the valley's superb art and architecture.

The Newar golden age peaked in the 17th century when the valley consisted of small city-states, and Nepal was a vitally important trading link between Tibet and the north Indian plains. the valley's visible history is inextricably entangled with the Malla kings. It was during their reign, particularly in the 1600's and 1700's, that many of the valley's finest temples and palaces were built. Competition between the cities was intense and an architectural innovation in one place, such as the erection of a column bearing a statue of the ruling king, would inevitably be copied in the other cities.

Sorting out who built what and when is considerably complicated by the fact that at any one time there was not just one Malla king. Each of the three city-states in the valley – Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur – had its own.

The unification of Nepal in 1768 by Gorkha's king Prithvi Narayan Shah signaled the end of the Kathmandu Valley's fragmentation. Nepali, an Indo-European language spoken by the Khas of western Nepal. replaced Nepalbhasa as the country's language of administration.

It is not surprising that the Newar people were influenced by Tibet and India. What is surprising is their creativity response to this stimulus, which actually led to a genuine exchange with their giant neighbors. Mediaeval Near society has left a religious architectural and artistic legacy that is unique, and spectacular by any standard.

Although most Newars have Mongoloid physical characteristics, some don't, so their origins are shrouded in mystery. It is now generally accepted that they are a mixture of many different peoples who were attracted to the valley, possibly origination with the Kiratis, or an even earlier group, Perhaps the Newars' most striking characteristic is their love of communal life. Newar houses were invariably clustered together, usually around sites of religious significance. Although their economy was centered around agriculture and trade, they created sophisticated urban communities which catered to a breadth of human needs in an integrated way that has rarely been matched.

Today there are around 600,000 Newars largely centered in the Kathmandu Valley. Always traders and merchants, the Newars continue to fill this role throughout the kingdom. Their proximity to the center of power has also led to them having a disproportionate influence in the bureaucracies of Kathmandu. many now live in heartbreakingly ugly bungalows on the outskirts of the city proper, and many of their traditions are on the wane.

The Newars are very much rich in traditional, classical and folk music as in dances. Various music and dance events take place in different parts of Newar societies on the occasion of different festivals. In fact, the Newars are so duly intermixed with music and dances that not a single festival, feast or ceremony, 'from womb to tomb', passes without a music or music and dances.
Various songs, musical instruments and dances are connected with various religious, social and cultural life of the Newars Different musical instruments are in practice in the festival, feasts, ceremonies and also in funeral procession.

Musical instruments
It is believed that there are about 200 (two hundred) types of original musical instruments in Nepal, and 108(one hundred eight types) of musical instruments have been found till now. A great number of Newar musical instruments are included init. These instruments can be classified into four classes according to Sangeet Shastra.

1. Membranophones - Dhimay, Dhah, Paschima, NayaKhin etc.
2. Idiophones - Bhusyah, Chhusyah, TainNain etc.
3. Chordophones - Piwancha
4. Aerophones - Muhali, Nekoo, Bansuri etc.

Of all the Nepalese people, the Newars celebrate the greatest number of festivities and feasts. They are known for a immense variety of cuisines they prepare in many occasions. Newar food can be divided into two main types.

1.Daily foods- Jyona (Lunch), Beli (Dinner).
2.Bhoye- Banquet having a number of dishes with systematic arrangement in order.

The main dishes of the Newars are as follows-


Chatanmari-It is something like what you call pizza. It is prepared from rice flour with minced meat or egging topping or also can be prepared plainly. It is mainly eaten in Digu Puja.
Wo-A flat cake of mashed lentils with or without egg/minced meat topping.
Samay Baji- A ritual set of five dishes representing Pancha Tatwa. It constitutes Baji, Samay (flattened rice), chhoyla (roasted meat), sanya (smoked fish), palu (sliced ginger) and aila (wine).
Chhoyla- Spicy meat, ether roasted or boiled known as haku chhoyla or mana chhoyla. It is generally served with flattened rice and homemade wine.
Sukula- Dried meat diced and spiced.
Tahkha- A jelly-like meat.

Main Dishes

Jyona/beli-Boiled rice. Usually these words stand for a set of rice, and curries.
Ken- Lentil soup served with rice.
Wauncha- Green vegetables, especially mustard/spinach in feasts.
Boobah- Bean curry.
La- Meat curries, various verities : Pukala (fried), Gorma (white jellied meat), Dayakala (curried meat), for instance.


Sanan- Pickle, usually hot.
Sanya khuna/ Nya khuna- Jellied fish soup.
Paun kwa- Sour soup made from hog plum.


Juju dhau- Yogurt of high quality.


Pachinta mari- Sweet made of wheat flour and sugar, a must in Pastah Bhoye (high class wedding feast) which is taken away to home.


Thon- White beer, made of fermented rice. It too has some types : hyaun thon (red one), taku thon (thick one) etc.
Aila- Colorless homemade liquor.


Tayo is the one of the largest Newar ethnic Jewelry piece of Nepal. It is a necklace worn by Newar girls, brides, and women as well as deities like Lokeswors, Yognis, Dipankers and Kumaris on the special ceremony. Tayo has high symbolic meanings and religious values. It is worn as it is believed that the pointed pendent part of the necklace symbolizes the Kathmandu Valley, while the facets of the pendent for the directions of the Valley, and a center jewel under the hood of the snake-heads is for the Swayambhu Stupa of the Kathmandu valley. The Swayambhu Stupa stands for the Pancha Buddhas. The places for the five Buddhas ( Pancha Buddha) in the Stupa are in a Mandala position Vairochan in the center, Akhswovya in the east, Amitabhava in the west, Amogha-sidhi in the north and Rana-Sambhava in the South. The Mandala symbolizes the Universe of the World related with the Mahayana Buddhism. Such is the importance of Tayo in the cultural heritage of Nepal. Pratapaditya Pal, the author of "Arts of Nepal" (a catalogue of the Los Angle County Museum) remarked it, "One example of gold jewelry (Tayo), its quality is eloquent testimony of the Newar craftsmen's skill and its asthebilty."

Ghau is an amulet box pendant with semi-precious stones. The box is attached to coral beads, and Buddhist women in the hilly regions of Nepal wear it. It is a symbolic jewelry piece related with the Mahayan Buddhism. The stones at the corners and at the center signify the five Pancha- Buddhas of Swayambhu Stupa like that of a Tayo, a traditional necklace worn by the Newar women of the valley.

Kilip is a finely worked out gold head ornament. It is very popular among almost tribes of Nepal. It is in oval shape with a cluster of flowers motif and usually a peacock on the top. Sometimes, Kilip may be in moon shape. It is used as a hair clip on the back of the head. The back of the Kilip is made of silver with a lock on it. People in the hill area use Kilip in pairs.

Lunswan is a circular disk type ornament made of gold. It is popular among almost tribes of Nepal. It is worn on the top or back of head. It has a quite big coral on the center with image of Ganesh on coral. To make a Lunswan, first a sheet of gold is prepared in circular shape and a cluster of flowers and leaves are carved around the coral. It is usually used on the wedding and festivals. A normal Lunswan is about diameter and about 100g in weight.

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Gulmi ---- A hidden Treasure

(For more pictures click Gulmi...)

 Gulmi, having an Important role in the history of Nepal situated on the northern boundary of Lumbini zone in the western Development region is a small hilly district. It’s name was derived from the Sanskrit word “Gulma” which means a military Regime or cantonment. It had its soldierly important in the Lichchhabi and Malla periods. There used to a military regiment here. In Lichchhabi period was Gadhigulma on the river Gandaki. There’s a place named Gulmi Charpala which used to be called Gulmi Kot. On the aforementioned bases it was named as Gulmi.

Holy place of the region, Resunga is one of the most beautiful hills to visit in Nepal. Amazingly, elevated at 2347 meter above sea level, Resunga is about 3-4 hours trek from the district headquarters Tamghas. There is also a rough road -for small 4-wheelers- almost up to the top. One can have a spectacular 180 degree view of snowcapped mountains (like Mount Dhaulagiri) to the flats of Terai from the view tower. A religiously popular Yagyashala (fire place), old temples, ponds and a view tower are the attractions of the place. Region’s holy festivals Harisayani Ekadashi (June-end), Saune Aunsi (mid-August) and Haribodhani Ekadashi (mid-October) take place in Resunga annually.

Another holy place Ridi also known as Ruru Kshetra sacredly located at the confluence of the Ridi Khola stream and the river Kali Gandaki. Thousands of Hindu pilgrims from Nepal and India pay homage to lord Rishi Keshav in Ridi during Makar Sakranti festival in mid January every year. Ridi is the locality for the biggest yearly fair in the area. It is claimed that the most famous temple here, the Rishikesh Mandir, was established by Mukunda Sen, King of Palpa. The temple underwent several renovations and its original shape has been changed.

The coffee from Gulmi claims to be one of the best produced in Nepal, every visitors are requested to taste the coffee from Gulmi. This holy District Gulmi has lot to offer than Shrines and Coffee, the panoramic views of while mountainous range are one of the attraction of Gulmi.

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Rajesh Kc -
Gulmi Online -

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Mt. Makalu Expedition and base camp trekking

(For more pictures click Mt. Makalu... )

Mount Makalu (8463m.) was first climbed by a French party in 1955. The peak was first mapped and photographed from the Tibetan side by the 1921 British Everest reconnaissance. Hillary and Shipton photographed mount Makalu during a side trip on the 1951 Everest reconnaissance. Hillary and others approached the peak a year later after the failure of their mount Cho Oyu expedition.

The first attempt on mount Makalu was in 1954 by a US team, mostly from California , who trekked all the way from the Indian border near Biratnagar. At the same time a British team approached the mountain, but this expedition was abandoned when Hillary became seriously ill and had to be evacuated.

In the autumn of 1954 a French team attempted the peak. In the following spring, successfully ascents were made by three teams of French climbers on successive days.

In 1960 a large scientific and mountaineering expedition wintered at the foot of mount Ama Dablam, occupying the Green and Silver buts. In May 1961, the expedition trekked across the Mingbo La and other high passes to the foot off mount Makalu , where they planned to climb the French route, Sickness stopped the expedition, which became a heroic struggle for survival.

The Japanese climbed mount Makalu in 1970, another French team climbed it in 1971 and a Yugoslav expedition reached the summit in 1975. In 1976 Spanish and Czechoslovakian teams joined up near the summit.

Makalu West Face

It is very adventurous route to climb because it is a little bit dangerous as well. The 5 attempts were made before climbing this Mount Makalu Mountain ; then only it was succeeded in the final.

The West Face was successfully summit in 1997. The Russian expedition had taken the route of this West Face of mount Makalu, leaded by Sergey Efimov and climbed the top on 21st of May via the most difficult route. The last part of the route had gone on Parago ridge. Alexei Bolotov, Yuri Ermachek, Dmitri Pavlenko, Igor Bugachevski and Nikolai Jiline had climbed on the top of mount Makalu at this time For this ascent they were awarded the "Gold ice-axe".

The routes are of 4 parts: 

The bottom part starts from the base of the West Face at 5,800 meters and climbs to the hanging ice-fall at 6,100 meters to the right part of the ice-fall. The second part extends from the plateau above the ice-fall along 35 to 45 degree elevation's rock up to the 6,500 meters high. The next section is an ice-rock wall, 50 to 55 degrees steep and that extends to 7,400 meters height. The last final section begins 70 to 75 degree elevation's rock pillar, which leads to the west ridge at 8,000 meters height till to the top of the summit.

Ropes are typically fixed from 5800m to 6100m and from 6500 m to 7500m. Camps established by the Russian Team were at the following locations.

The French Route on the West Pillar is an aesthetically stunning line that has been seldom attempted. It is an exceedingly difficult, a very steep pillar that was first successfully ascended in 1971. The crux of the line comes at approximately 7,600m in the area of the Seignior Wall.

The first US team to summit was in 1980, they summit via this West Pillar Route . The team was made up of Jim States , John Roskelley, Kim Momb and Chris Kopczynski. They summit 2 members of the team and put 2 members within 150 feet. They summit without the use of oxygen or Sherpa support.


Fly to Tumlingtar
Tumlingtar - Kuwapani
Kuwapani - Chichila
Chichila - Num
Num- Seduwa
Seduwa - Tashigaun
Tashigaun - Khongma La (Danda)
Khongmadanda - Mumfuk
Mumfuk -Yangle Kharak
Yangle Khark -Merak
Merak -Sersung (half day rest) for acclimatize
Sersung - Makalu Base camp
Climbing Period for Makalu 8463m.
Makalu BC - Mumbuck
Mumbuck - Khongma La (Danda)
Khongma La - Seduwa
Seduwa - Chichila
Chichila - Tumlingtar
Tumlingtar - you can take the flight from here

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Mt. Makalu and Surroundings

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KrisWorld Inflight Entertainment System
This next generation KrisWorld offers over 1000 on-demand options that includes movies, TV programmes, interactive games, audio CDs and programming, as well as a variety of learning applications, allowing customers to make the most of their time onboard the aircraft.

In addition, it also makes available a comprehensive suite of office tools that includes spreadsheet, presentation and word processing on each personal KrisWorld system. The programme, powered by Sun Microsystems' StarOffice Productivity Suite, supports most file formats.

Powered by the latest eX2 inflight entertainment system, KrisWorld is one the most dynamic and versatile inflight entertainment system available today.

KrisWorld also features larger, high-resolution screens across all three classes, sleek and compact handsets with intuitive controls, external USB ports in every seat, as well as new active noise reduction headsets for First and Business Class customers.

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Business class seat

Japan Airlines (JAL) will start introducing on US routes a luxurious new suite to JAL First Class and a leading-edge seat to JAL Executive Class Seasons, the airline’s branded business class. The airline will launch the JAL Suite in first class and the JAL Shell Flat Neo Seat in business class when the airline introduces new 777-300ER aircraft on US routes, starting with the Tokyo - New York route on August 1, 2008.

Brand new 777-300ER aircraft fitted with both the new suite and new seat will start operating every other day on the Tokyo–New York route (JL005/ 006) on August 1, 2008, going daily on August 11. This will be followed by the Tokyo–San Francisco route on September 13, 2008, and the Tokyo - Chicago and Los Angeles routes in FY2009, the year starting April 1, 2009.

The popular JAL Premium Economy service with the innovatively designed JAL Sky Shell Seat, plus the airline’s very latest economy class seats will also be introduced on these aircraft at the same time. Passengers travelling on these US routes will, therefore, be able to experience, in all classes of travel, the very best seating and service available in the skies today.


The JAL Suite in JAL First Class offers one of the largest and most luxurious personal spaces in the sky complemented by an unparalleled in-flight service experience for the ultimate in privacy, relaxation, dining, and entertainment. The JAL Suites are 20% more spacious than the airline’s current seat in first class, the JAL New Skysleeper Solo Seat. The exclusive compartment of the JAL Suite is made of a range of the latest composite materials which provide a wonderfully sophisticated finish. Only 8 suites are available in the JAL First Class cabin set in a 1-2-1 configuration.

The JAL Suite features a seat upholstered in pale gray leather with 5-inch wide, thickly padded armrests making it reminiscent of a traditional armchair. At the touch of a button, the armrests smoothly retract as the seat converts into a full-flat bed. In the 180° position the seat combines with an ottoman located at the opposite end of the compartment to create one of the largest and widest, most comfortable sleeping areas in first class.

When the seat is in the upright position, the ottoman can be used as a seat, should the passenger, for example, choose to discuss business, dine or just pass the time with a fellow traveler. The large sliding table can be placed conveniently in between the seat and ottoman providing ample space for both passengers at such times.

Passengers, seated in the pair of suites located in the centre of each row, can raise or lower privacy partitions located between them to create the exact atmosphere they wish.

Passengers are provided with Bose noise-cancelling headphones and on their own personal 19-inch personal TV screen can enjoy the latest movies, music and games using JAL's state-of-the-art audio-visual-on-demand (AVOD) in-flight entertainment system.

The compartment also features stowage spaces for bags and small items, a large side shelf, literature pockets and a laptop power point,

When dining onboard, passengers in the JAL Suite can now order whatever they like, whenever the like, as often as they like. In the JAL Suite, no meal times will be fixed to give passengers the full freedom to choose when they what to eat. With the assistance of a cabin attendant at the beginning of their journey, passengers are able to tailor their dining schedule specifically to their own needs. Furthermore, all items on the full-course menus and a la carte menu can be mixed and matched according to each passenger’s individual taste.

Japan Airlines offers first class passengers a choice of Japanese or Western full-course menus. Passengers choosing the Western menu can select from three entrees, one of which is a JAL Healthy Menu Selection. In the JAL Suite, it will be possible for the more health-conscious passenger to order the main dishes of the western full-course without the sauces that normally accompany them.

Alternatively passengers can savor the seasonally changing flavors of a traditional Kyoto-style menu known as kaiseki-ryori. For JAL Suite passengers, six tasty new appetizers called kobachi will be served just before the main elements of this meal. The appetizers will be served on small bone china dishes arranged in a traditional two-tiered bento (lunch) box. The first kobachi to be served onboard is inspired by the beautiful colored autumnal leaves of Rakusei, in the western part of Kyoto, and includes such delicious seasonal tastes as Japanese conger eel and ayu (sweetfish) with its roe.

The a la carte menu, which contains about a dozen dishes, has been enhanced by adding a simple, low calorie, healthy vegetarian option, known as shojin ryori in Japanese, which is commonly served in Zen Buddhist temples.

New tableware enhances the whole JAL Suite dining experience. A number of items have been created by master craftspeople of Japan such as beautiful chopsticks made from the Aomori hiba, a Japanese cypress tree, and unique porcelain mugs from Hasami, Nagasaki which have exclusively been designed and made for JAL. The concept of universal has been incorporated in these items making them easier to grip and use.

Mattresses have been made exclusively for the JAL Suite by the company Tempur-Pedic International Inc., whose products have been recognized by NASA and certified by the Space Foundation. The mattresses are made of a material called TEMPUR® described by the company as ‘a visco-elastic temperature sensitive material that moulds to your body. It yields slowly under compression, making no counter pressure, until the load is distributed on the entire area. When the load is removed, TEMPUR recovers slowly.’ The mattresses provide unrivalled support and the ultimate sleeping experience. Cabin attendants place a mattress on each seat-bed on the passenger’s request together with a down comforter and a choice of pillow. Passengers can choose between a Symphony Pillow made of super soft TEMPUR, or a down pillow.

New loungewear is also offered in the JAL Suite. A cardigan embossed with a gold-colored JAL First Class logo and matching pants made of 100% pure cotton have been exclusively designed for JAL by the designer Aoshi Kudo.


The JAL Shell Flat Neo Seat has been created based on the design of JAL Shell Flat Seat - JAL's award-winning seat in business class. The new seat for JAL Executive Class Seasons has been improved in a number of ways to maximize business class passengers’ comfort and relaxation.

Compared to the JAL Shell Flat Seat, the JAL Shell Flat Neo Seat reclines further to an angle of 171 degrees and its seat pitch and width have both been increased.

The upholstery of the seat, which now includes a slip-proof cover, has been enhanced to ensure that passengers can relax to the full and enjoy the most refreshing of sleeps. The controls of the seat have been refined to enable passengers to find the perfect position in which to relax.

A 15.4 inch personal TV screen has been incorporated into the JAL Shell Flat Neo Seat providing passengers with one of the world’s largest screens available in international business class.

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Business class airfares for VIP People

Singapore Airlines' new First Class offers the world's finest travelling experience. The spacious premium cabin distinguishes itself with just eight stately seats on the B777-300ER, offering each First Class customer complete privacy and enhanced attention from the cabin crew.

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Upholstered in leather, the new seat at 35-inches in width, is the most spacious first class product ever to be introduced by a commercial airline.

Singapore Airlines First Class 03

Its unique design offers the airline's premium customers the flexibility to use the seat as a daybed for lounging, reading and entertainment in their preferred seating or lounging postures as they would at home. By night, it converts into a full-sized flat bed that offers the customers the choice of resting in their natural sleeping position.

Singapore Airlines First Class 05

The new First Class seat is also the ultimate platform to enjoy the exceptional functionalities of KrisWorld inflight entertainment system, offering a sleek 23-inch LCD screen with a business panel equipped with USB ports and in-seat power supply, as well as new active noise reduction headsets.

Singapore Airlines First Class 06

Other exclusive features of this superbly designed all-round product include a private vanity area, an easy to use sliding table that is also adjustable for height, as well as large in-seat stowage space, all complemented by furnishings and amenities designed by fashion house, Givenchy.

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The First Class dining service, exclusively designed by Singapore Airlines' panel of renowned chefs and wine experts, has also been further refined. Besides having complete flexibility as to when to dine, First Class customers can select from a revamped menu, presented with a daily chef's recommendation.

Singapore Airlines Business Class 01
Singapore Airlines Business Class 02

Business Class
A stylish combination of enhanced personal space, functionality and leading-edge innovation, the new Singapore Airlines Business Class seat sets a new standard.

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It is the world's widest business class product. Measuring 30-inches, the new Singapore Airlines Business Class seat is a full-flat product that is almost 50 percent wider than most products currently offered in this class.

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Seats are arranged in a forward facing, four-abreast (1-2-1) configuration that offers all customers direct access to the aisle. Every seat also has a fixed back shell that extends to the sides for enhanced privacy.

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The innovative design of the seat allows it to be transformed into the largest full-flat Business Class bed in the sky to provide enhanced comfort not only when sleeping but also for lounging.

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Other enhanced features include a 15.4-inch LCD monitor fully equipped with USB ports and in-seat power, exclusively designed bedding and dining-ware by Givenchy, enlarged dining table that is adjustable for height as well as trolley bag stowage under the seat.

Singapore Airlines Economy Class 01

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